You have successfully emailed the how long was britain in the eu. 23 EU member states signed a military cooperation agreement this week.
The UK, which has historically opposed such steps, is one of five hold-out nations. A large majority of EU nations have signed up to a defence co-operation pact which moves the bloc closer to having its own military capability. The hold-out countries were Malta, Denmark, Ireland, Portugal, and also the United Kingdom, which is leaving the bloc in 2019 and has long opposed EU defence cooperation. Formally, EU member states are responsible for their own defence arrangements, despite the extensive integration which has taken place in other areas. But a series of initiatives over the years have sought to increase the bloc’s ability to act as one in defence matters.
The process is complicated because EU nations have militaries of vastly different sizes, capabilities and traditions. Most — but not all — EU nations are members of NATO. Some have been very active militarily in the past, while others are more reluctant. Some, like Germany, require parliamentary votes to engage in operations, while others do not. Pesco is the latest attempt to bridge these divides and let European militaries work together.